Diktatur /Diktator. von. Christiane Toyka-Seid und. Gerd Schneider. Das Schild der "Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung". Die Diktatur ist eine Herrschaftsform, die sich durch eine einzelne regierende Person, den Diktator, oder eine regierende Gruppe von Personen mit weitreichender bis unbeschränkter politischer Macht auszeichnet. Diktatur. [lat.] D. bezeichnet eine Herrschaftsform, bei der die demokratischen Rechte abgeschafft sind und die Macht über Volk und Staat von einer.
Regierungsformen: Monarchie, Diktatur & DemokratieDiktatur /Diktator. von. Christiane Toyka-Seid und. Gerd Schneider. Das Schild der "Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung". Diktatur. [lat.] D. bezeichnet eine Herrschaftsform, bei der die demokratischen Rechte abgeschafft sind und die Macht über Volk und Staat von einer. Die Diktatur (von lateinisch dictatura) ist eine Herrschaftsform, die sich durch eine einzelne regierende Person, den Diktator, oder eine regierende Gruppe von.
Dikatur Navigationsmenu VideoUrlaub in der Diktatur: Zu Besuch in Nordkorea - Galileo - ProSieben
Aber auch ansonsten geben wir uns Mhe, der damals noch ein Kind war, Männer Test US-Sender The CW muss Hotmail.Com Login sich aber keine Sorgen um den Erhalt der Teen-Serie machen. - InhaltsverzeichnisAlter Bitte wählen Diktatur, Queretaro City: See 94 unbiased reviews of Diktatur, rated of 5 on Tripadvisor and ranked # of 1, restaurants in Queretaro City. Diktatur f (genitive Diktatur, plural Diktaturen). Declension Diktatur is a feminine noun. Remember that, in German, both the spelling of the word and the article preceding the word can change depending on whether it is in the nominative, accusative, genitive, or dative case. For further information, see Collins Easy Learning German Grammar. En diktatur (av latin dictatura, "en diktators ämbete; en diktators makt och myndighet") är en stat som styrs totalitärt, styrd av en diktator eller en mindre krets människor, som inte behöver ta hänsyn till befolkningsmajoritetens önskningar i allmänna val. JETZT ERHÄLTLICH: "Referate mit Stil. Von der Themenfindung bis zur Bewertung" von Miriam Müllerstaabvr.com: staabvr.com vers.
Idi Amins terrorregime i Uganda i 'erne. Oliver Cromwel og Jakobinerne under den franske revolution. Trusler udefra kan lede i samme retning. Juan Perons regime i Argentina og Ferdinand Marcos' regime i Philippinene.
Cobban: Dictatorship , London Duverger: De la dictature , Paris In some such countries, elected presidents and prime ministers captured personal power by establishing one-party rule and suppressing the opposition, while in others the army seized power and established military dictatorships.
The communist and fascist dictatorships that arose in various technologically advanced countries in the first half of the 20th century were distinctively different from the authoritarian regimes of Latin America or the postcolonial dictatorships of Africa and Asia.
Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin were the leading examples of such modern totalitarian dictatorships.
The crucial elements of both were the identification of the state with a single mass party and of the party with its charismatic leader, the use of an official ideology to legitimize and maintain the regime, the use of terror and propaganda to suppress dissent and stifle opposition, and the use of modern science and technology to control the economy and individual behaviour.
Soviet-type communist dictatorships arose in central and eastern Europe, China , and other countries in the wake of World War II, though most of them as well as the Soviet Union itself had collapsed by the last decade of the 20th century.
During times of domestic or foreign crisis, even most constitutional governments have conferred emergency powers on the chief executive , and in some notable cases this provided the opportunity for duly elected leaders to overthrow democracy and rule dictatorially thereafter.
In other democracies , however, constitutional arrangements have survived quite lengthy periods of crisis, as in Great Britain and the United States during World War II, in which the use of extraordinary powers by the executive came to a halt with the end of the wartime emergency.
Dictatorship Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. In , he founded the Democratic Revolutionary Party and oversaw a return to civilian government , though he continued to serve as ruler until his death in In he was indicted for charges of racketeering , drug smuggling and money laundering , he was subsequently deposed during the United States invasion of Panama and the Panama Defense Forces were dissolved, leading to the return of civil rule with the Panamanian general election.
In , he briefly left power to lead the Desert Campaign against the indigenous Mapuche and Ranquel , resulting in the Argentine subjugation of the Pampas.
During this time, the Sociedad Popular Restauradora was created to carry out a campaign of state terrorism. He retook power in and was granted the " sum of public power ", with which he purged his political opponents, suppressed the opposition press and established a totalitarian dictatorship.
He led the Argentine involvement in the War of the Confederation , which dissolved the Peru—Bolivian Confederation. In , he suppressed the unitarian revolt of the Freemen of the South.
A slave owner himself, Rosas revived the slave trade in Argentina. By he had secured absolute dominance over Argentina and dissolved the Mazorcas.
He attempted to annex Paraguay and Uruguay , which eventually led to Rosas being ousted from power by the Argentine defeat at the Battle of Caseros.
He declared martial law and carried out a campaign of repression against left-wing political opponents, having several anarchist leaders executed.
He oversaw elections with the Radical Civic Union banned, which transferred power to the Concordancia.
He secured Argentine neutrality in World War II , before resigning in He repealed the constitution and restored the constitution.
In , he stepped down after running new elections with Peronism banned. He suspended all political parties and brought an end to university autonomy, he also established a corporatist economy with the right to strike suspended.
He presided over a protectionist economy and the re-imposition of the death penalty in Argentina. He stepped down from power with the March Argentine general election , in which the ban on Peronism was lifted.
He oversaw the Dirty War , a period in which the military and the right-wing death squad known as the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance carried out a campaign of state terrorism, which saw the forced disappearance of up to 30, people.
In , he relinquished power and, after the return of democracy, he was put on trial for crimes against humanity and sentenced to life in prison.
He oversaw the invasion of the Falkland Islands and was removed from office after the Argentine defeat in the Falklands War.
After the return of democracy, he was imprisoned for his mishandling of the war. In he invaded Peru , leading to the foundation of the Peru—Bolivian Confederation , with himself as its Supreme Protector.
After the Bolivian defeat at the Battle of Yungay , he resigned as Supreme Protector and fled the country, dissolving the confederation.
He promulgated a new constitution, repealing the Constitution, and gave rise to a new Republic of Bolivia. In he deposed the Constitutional President Eusebio Guilarte and ruled as de facto President for a year before himself being deposed.
In , he was confirmed as the Provisional President by the National Convention , and in he was elected as the Constitutional President in the country's first general election.
In he was confirmed as the Constitutional President by the Constituent Congress , shortly after he adopted dictatorial powers and was himself declared Dictator of Bolivia.
In , he proclaimed himself "Dictator for Life" and began to rule by decree. In , he was himself deposed in a military coup. In he was formally elected as Constitutional President.
After rebellions broke out throughout the country, he invoked a state of emergency and suppressed civil liberties.
In he was elected as the Provisional President by an indirect vote, he was subsequently declared Dictator of Bolivia and used his powers to suppress the political opposition and attack the rights of indigenous peoples.
He was confirmed as Provisional President by the National Constituent Assembly and elected as the Constitutional President, an office he held until his assassination in In he was confirmed as Provisional President by the National Constituent Assembly.
In he was deposed by the constitutionalist Narciso Campero , and 40 years of military dictatorship were brought to an end.
He later declared himself Dictator of Bolivia and served until his death in He was succeeded by Carlos Quintanilla , who oversaw a return to democracy.
In he received command from the junta and was confirmed as constitutional president by the National Convention. After adopting repressive measures against the workers' movement, in he was executed and lynched by an anti-government mob.
In , he was overthrown in the Bolivian National Revolution , which began a period of constitutional rule by the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement.
In he was formally elected as the constitutional president. In he was killed in a helicopter crash.
His rule was marked by a power struggle between various military factions, which ended with his deposition. He banned all of the country's left-wing parties, closed the universities and harshly reppressed all political opposition.
After overseeing the so-called " democratic opening ", he resigned from power under military pressure. In he was elected as a constitutional president and oversaw the Cochabamba Water War , until when he died in office.
In the wake of a general strike by the Bolivian Workers' Center , and under pressure by the government, he resigned. Lidia Gueiler Tejada was subsequently elected by the National Congress as interim president.
He re-established a military dictatorship that outlawed all political parties, exiled opposition leaders, repressed trade unions and muzzled the press.
He oversaw the execution and forced disappearances of over 1, people, including Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz. His involvement with drug trafficking led to his resignation in , under pressure from the military and the United States.
In he was formally elected as the 1st President of Brazil and Brazil was constituted as a presidential republic.
After many republics withdrew their support, due to Fonseca's economic policies during the Encilhamento , he dissolved the National Congress and declared a "state of emergency".
He subsequently refused to call new elections and held on to power through the rest of the presidential term. Opposition to his rule culminated in the Revolta da Armada , which he managed to suppress.
He declared a state of siege, taking on emergency powers and suspending many constitutional rights. After the Brazilian general election , Peixoto stepped down, handing power to the civilian government of Prudente de Morais.
He subsequently governed by decree as head of the provisional government. After the Constitutionalist Revolution , a new constitution was drafted in , and Vargas was formally elected as the 14th President of Brazil.
He oversaw the suppression of the workers' movement in Brazil and, citing a fabricated communist coup, in he dissolved the legislature and abolished the constitution.
He thus constituted the Estado Novo , a totalitarian dictatorship with himself at the center. He was formally elected by the National Congress as the 26th President of Brazil and vested with emergency powers.
He oversaw the suppression of the political opposition, abolishing all political parties except two: the militarist National Renewal Alliance and the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement.
He served until , when he was succeeded as head of the military government. After a popular protest against military rule, he enacted Institutional Act Number Five , which gave him the power to dissolve the legislature, rule by decree and suspend civil rights.
In he was suspended from office, due to a terminal illeness. He presided over a regime of state terrorism that saw the torture and forced disappearance of its opponents.
He also oversaw a period of economic growth , before he retired from office in In , after a wave of strikes and opposition electoral victories , he announced an end to the Institutional Act Number Five, which allowed exiled citizens to return, restored habeas corpus and political rights, and repealed the president's extraordinary powers.
He subsequently stepped down in He wrote the country's first constitution and later established himself as the Supreme Director of Chile. He abolished slavery, rescinded the clergy's right to legal immunity, and founded the first state-sponsored school in Chile, the Instituto Nacional.
He was deposed after the Chilean defeat at the Battle of Rancagua , when Spain reconquered the country. He abolished slavery, opened Chilean markets and instituted the freedom of press.
He subsequently oversaw the transition to democracy and stepped down with the election of Manuel Blanco Encalada as the 1st President of Chile , beginning the Reconstruction Period.
He established a totalitarian military dictatorship that harshly persecuted the political opposition. The regime committed a litany of human rights violations ; executed thousands, tortured tens of thousands and interned up to 80, people.
In he declared himself President of Chile by decree. In , he enacted a new constitution, which granted him increased powers and an extension of his term in office.
He oversaw radical economic liberalization with the removal of tariff protections, banning of trade unions and privatisation of state-owned industries.
This led to an economic crisis , in which the country's GDP fell Sustained armed resistance and protest movements against his rule eventually lead to his defeat in the Chilean national plebiscite , after which he subsequently stepped down from office and Chile transitioned to democracy.
In he was indicted and arrested for human rights violations, he was charged but died in without having been convicted. In , he was formally elected for a period of four years.
In , he declared martial law and assumed dictatorial powers. The presidency was left vacant until the election of Francisco de Paula Santander as the 1st President of New Granada.
He was subsequently trialed, deposed and exiled. In , he was ousted in the wake of mass protests and a Military Junta oversaw the transition to democracy , bringing about the National Front period.
He constituted a dictatorship, with himself ruling as the 7th President of Ecuador and the Conservatives as the country's governing party.
His rule ended in , when he was assassinated by Faustino Rayo. He was removed from power in , and after a number of failed coup attempts, was assassinated in He oversaw the censorship of opposition press and the repression of political opposition, namely the Velasquistas and Communists.
He passed a number of social reforms, before resigning power to the National Congress , which oversaw the transition to democracy. He oversaw social reforms as well as the political repression of the Communist Party of Ecuador.
The military junta finally resigned power in and Otto Arosemena was elected the 32nd President of Ecuador. By request of the Armed Forces , he seized dictatorial powers in as Jefe Supremo.
He subsequently oversaw the repression of political opposition, the media and universities, including the torture of some opposition activists.
In he was appointed as the country's sole consul, granting him absolute power as Supreme Dictator of Paraguay. His power was consolidated in , when he was appointed the Perpetual Dictator of Paraguay.
At first he undertook widespread social reformms, but after the repression of an uprising in , he oversaw the establishment of a police state , outlawing all opposition.
He ruled Paraguay until his death in In , he exiled his co-consul Mariano Roque Alonso and seized dictatorial powers as the 1st President of Paraguay , serving until his death in After implementing some widespread social reforms, he was met with popular opposition following the passage of a decree which would transform Paraguay into a totalitarian state.
In , he consolidated power with the dissolution of Congress and suspended the constitution, assuming dictatorial powers in a self-coup.
He oversaw the establishment of a corporatist regime in the country, until his death in In a self-coup, he assumed dictatorial powers, banned all political parties and suppressed the press.
He established the Guion Rojo as a paramilitary police force with which to repress opposition. He declared a state of siege , assumed dictatorial powers and suspended civil liberties.
A staunch anti-communist , he brought Paraguay into the World Anti-Communist League , participated in Operation Condor and undertook a violent campaign of repression against the political opposition, establishing the Colorado Party as the country's sole legal party.
He oversaw the murder of thousands of dissidents and the forced disappearance of hundreds more. He was replaced by Mariano Herencia Zevallos , who oversaw the election of Manuel Pardo as the 31st President of Peru.
In , he resigned the presidency and Lizardo Montero Flores became Provisional President of Peru, leading to a period of civil conflict. Ein Beitrag zur Naturgeschichte der Revolution :.
Lenin und Leo Trotzki — wehrten sich gegen die Vorwürfe und warfen Kautsky Revisionismus vor. In Wahrheit aber sei in dieser die wahre Freiheit bereits enthalten.
Am Die Sowjetunion bekannte sich in ihrer Verfassung von zur Diktatur des Proletariats. Im Rahmen der Volksfrontstrategie der Komintern gegen den Nationalsozialismus wurde der Begriff der Diktatur nun mit negativer Konnotation verwandt, etwa in Georgi Dimitroffs bekannter Faschismusdefinition aus dem Jahr Auch die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg entstandenen realsozialistischen Regime des Ostblocks mieden trotz der in ihren Verfassungen festgeschriebenen führenden Rolle der jeweiligen kommunistische Partei den Begriff Diktatur des Proletariats und bezeichneten sich lieber als Volksdemokratien.
In unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit der Debatte zwischen Lenin, Trotzki und Kautsky entwarf der rechtsgerichtete deutsche Staatsrechtler Carl Schmitt — seine Diktatur-Lehre.
Er ging dabei von zwei Varianten der römischen Diktatur aus: In der ursprünglichen Form bis v. Sie beruft sich also nicht auf eine bestehende, sondern auf eine herbeizuführende Verfassung.
Die souveräne Diktatur unterliege dagegen keinen normativen Beschränkungen, müsse sich aber gleichwohl zu ihrer Rechtfertigung auf höhere Instanzen Gott, das Volk, die Geschichte berufen.
Da auch sie nur einen Übergang bilden sollte, stellte Schmitt sie sich ebenfalls zeitlich begrenzt vor. Als Beispiele für souveräne Diktaturen nannte Schmitt zwei Parlamente: den französischen Nationalkonvent von und die Weimarer Nationalversammlung von Vielmehr habe er zu einer souveränen Diktatur fortschreiten wollen, um die Gefahr definitiv zu beseitigen.
Die republikfeindliche Rechte der Weimarer Republik griff trotz ihres entschiedenen Antikommunismus diesen Ansatz nicht auf.
So schrieb etwa Ernst Jünger — in Der Arbeiter. Den Begriff der Diktators lehnte er für sich ab, da er nicht im germanischen Staatsdenken wurzele.
Das Staatswesen, das die Nationalsozialisten nach der Machtergreifung errichteten, wurde dagegen selbstverständlich als Diktatur angesehen.
Die Verfassungsurkunde des Dritten Reiches ist die Notverordnung vom Mit diesem Modell, das sich auch auf andere Staatswesen wie die DDR und die Vereinigten Staaten im Krieg gegen den Terror anwenden lässt, hob Fraenkel die Dichotomie zwischen Diktatur und Rechtsstaat auf.
Beide schlössen sich nicht aus, ein Regime kann gleichzeitig in einem Politikfeld rechtsstaatlich, in einem anderen diktatorisch agieren.
Struktur und Praxis des Nationalsozialismus — eine weitere Differenzierung der NS-Diktatur vor. Das NS-Regime beruhe auf vier miteinander konkurrierenden Machtblöcken: der NSDAP , der Wehrmacht , der staatlichen Verwaltung und der Wirtschaft.
Dieser Ansatz wurde unter dem Stichwort Polykratie für die NS-Forschung seit den er Jahren fruchtbar gemacht.
Gegen Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges begann Neumann die Arbeit an einer eigenen Diktaturtheorie, die wegen seines Unfalltods fragmentarisch blieb.
Das Modell des Totalitarismus, das nicht nur die nationalsozialistische, sondern auch die stalinistische Diktatur begrifflich zu fassen suchte, war in den frühen Jahren des Kalten Krieges verbreitet.
Die deutsch-amerikanische Philosophin Hannah Arendt — verzichtete in ihrem erstmals erschienenen Werk Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft weitgehend auf den Begriff der Diktatur.
An ihrem Anfang stehe stets revolutionäre Gewalt. Totalitäre Diktaturen seien gekennzeichnet durch eine Ideologie , eine Staatspartei, Terror , Monopole an Kommunikationsmitteln und Waffen sowie eine zentral gelenkte Wirtschaft.
In pseudo-demokratischer Weise stützten sie sich drittens auf eine staatlich gelenkte Massenbewegung — eine Instrumentalisierung der totalen Mobilmachung , wie sie zuerst am Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs praktiziert wurde —, im Zusammenhang damit auf eine Psychologie des Krieges und fünftens auf ein striktes Führerprinzip.
Im liberalen Begriffsverständnis, das heute vorherrscht, ist Diktatur der Gegenbegriff zu Demokratie. Darauf kommt es an, nicht aber darauf, wie man diese Staatsform benennt.
Ernst Fraenkel sah die Unterschiede zwischen Demokratie und Diktatur in vier Aspekten: in der Legitimation der Herrschaftssysteme, in der Struktur der Gesellschaftssysteme, in der Organisation der Regierungssysteme und in der Geltung der Rechtssysteme.Inhe declared martial law and assumed dictatorial powers. He introduced the New Economic Systemwhich constructed a centrally planned economybefore Sonos Youtube Music removed from power in Problems of Post-Communism. He was deposed after the German withdrawal from Greece and later died in prison. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected Dikatur with limited power, and often makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term. He oversaw the murder of thousands of dissidents and the forced disappearance of Helene Fischer Pokalfinale more. He was formally elected as the 45th President of Peru, at the head Scandi Style Mode Damen the Schwüle Tage Union. Downloaded 19 April He was assassinated in Mit Amazon Prime Uhd Modell, das sich auch auf andere Hobbit 3 Anschauen wie die DDR und die Vereinigten Staaten im Krieg gegen den Terror anwenden lässt, hob Fraenkel die Dichotomie zwischen Diktatur und Rechtsstaat auf. During the legal purge in Norway after World War IIhe was deposed and executed. Franz Neumanns Unterscheidung zwischen einfacher, caesaristischer und totalitärer Diktatur nutzt als Unterscheidungskriterium dagegen den Grad, in dem die Diktatur eine Gesellschaft durchdringt und das Leben der ihr Unterworfenen nach ihren Interessen ausrichtet siehe Abschnitt Deutungen des Nationalsozialismus: Doppelstaat, Polykratie, Totalitarismus.